Bendegúz Csirmaz

This post is part of a series based on a presentation I gave at Cheppers on March 20, 2019.

PHP quiz #3 - operator associativity

Operators are the building blocks of computer programs. You might think you know them, but the devil is in the details. After all these years, I still find myself revisiting the precedence table every once in a while.


What will this code output?


$x = 2;
$y = 4;
$z = 6;

if ($z > $y > $x) {
  echo 'true';
} else {
  echo 'false';
  • A
    Syntax error
  • B
  • C


Show the answer
Syntax error


Operator associativity

Operator associativity decides how operators of equal precedence are grouped.

operator associativity example result
+ (addition) left 1 + 2 + 3 (1 + 2) + 3
= (assignment) right $a = $b = $c $a = ($b = $c)

Non-associative operators

In PHP, however, comparison operators are non-associative. They cannot be used next to each other.

The expression $z > $y > $x is illegal.

operator associativity example result
> (greater-than) non-associative $z > $y > $x syntax error

Other languages

Most programming languages do not allow the chaining of relational operators. The desired result is usually achieved with something like $z > $y && $y > $x.

A notable exception is Python. It evaluates chained relational operators the way someone less scarred by programming would expect.

x = 2
y = 4
z = 6

if z > y > x:

# true



There is a reason why you've never seen comparison operators chained like this in PHP code. It's because it's not legal.

Exam questions often try to trick you like this. When I notice something fishy and the problem isn't completely obvious, as a rule of thumb, I always consider the 'syntax error' answers first. Trust your intuition!

This post was inspired by Upwork's incorrect PHP interview questions (question #10).

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